Cat Chronology: 1571 to 1871 AD


To Western eyes, the above picture is adorable. But in Japanese cultural history, it is the dread Nekomata, and the image is part of a 1737 illustration of a hundred monsters.

Western portrayals of “bad” cats were surprisingly adorable in the early modern period, too:

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This 1616 painting by Hendrik Goltzius is called “The Fall of Man,” not “Adam and Eve Relaxing in the Garden.” (Source)

There is Eve, offering Adam the apple in the presence of a cat, not the traditional serpent. And a devilish goat looks on, quite pleased with itself.

The domestic cat’s round, baby-like face; its sensuousness and rather disconcerting combination of beauty, cunning, and carnivory; its blatant sex cravings; and perhaps most of all, our inability to ever know exactly what a cat is thinking–all of these combined down through the centuries into quite a body of scary legends.

These range from monsters like the Nekomata in Japan and cat curses in China to outright persecution in the West.

Fortunately, domestic cats are the “of course” of human history – they seem to be everywhere, not just at the focus of superstition and moral panics. Artists both East and West have always loved them.

No one knows the full details of how cats completed their journey out of Egypt into the wide world.

The biggest missing piece of this feline puzzle is what happened after cats reached the New World in the 16th century.

As we saw last time, conquistadors had cats as early as 1514.

Modern research shows that native people in the Caribbean and Latin American lowlands don’t share the European idea of proper boundaries between humans and animals. In this view, both animals and people can be either wild or tame. The idea of “domestication” doesn’t exist. (N)

Not that the conquistadors cared what the native residents of the New World thought. Cats were introduced and went feral or were accepted and used by local people. It would be fascinating to uncover the details of that process, though.

This last timeline in the series covers the European witch hunts, as well as a few relevant events during what historians call “the Scientific Revolution” and “the Age of Sail.” It ends with the founding of the modern cat fancy in 1871, at the Crystal Palace cat show in London.



Cat Chronology – 1571 to 1871 AD

16th Century

1578: North America: Contemporary accounts describe 100 Spanish ships, 20-30 Basque whalers, about 150 French and Breton ships, and 50 English ships fishing the waters off the Newfoundland coast. (M&C) (Presumably most of those ships have cats aboard for pest control and companionship; they may have stopped ashore, though no one knows exactly when the domestic cat first reached North America.)

1580-1588: Europe: At some point during these eight years, a French statesman and essayist writes what modern philosopher Jacques Derrida calls “one of the greatest pre- or anti-Cartesian texts on the [cat].”

When I play with my cat, who knows whether I do not make her more sport than she makes me? we mutually divert one another with our monkey tricks: if I have my hour to begin or to refuse, she also has hers.

— Michel de Montaigne, in “Apology for Raimond Sebond”

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Michel de Montaigne, cat lover. (Source)

(Cartesian refers to René Descartes, born in 1596. Besides mathematics, he is also famous for his philosophy – “I think therefore I am” (“Cogito ergo sum”) – and scientific work. Urban legends that he or his followers threw a cat out of a window to prove that it had no feelings are not true. Descartes apparently was well aware that animals feel such things as pain, anger, and fear. He compared them to machines, but he also called the human body a machine. The Cartesian view that changed how Westerners relate to animals was this: animals are incapable of abstract or generalized thought. (Cottingham)

Combine this with a hierarchal world view in the West (the “Great Chain of Being”) that puts humans above animals, add in a very narrow interpretation of the Biblical word rādâ that focuses on despotic domination rather than the word’s additional meaning of careful handling of a trust (P&F), and you get people doing some terrible things to animals guilt-free during the 17th and early 18th centuries, like scientific experimentation without anesthesia or working a horse to death.

Not everybody was on board with this, but concern for animal welfare didn’t begin to go mainstream until the 1750s.)

1580-1630: The peak years for European witch-hunts. This panic was much more complex than it seems to many of us today. Tens of thousands of people were executed, and of course no one knows how many cats suffered along with them. Here is Wikipedia’s list of trials.

1583: Italy: St. Philip Neri reportedly leaves his cat in Rome when told by the pope to relocate to another monastery. Supported by the saint’s followers, she outlives her master and becomes one of the city’s most famous cats.

Cats are protected by law in Italy today. Here is a video from a cat sanctuary in Rome. (There are several versions on YouTube — I think this is the original.)

1588: Europe: The Spanish Armada is destroyed off the coast of England. ( W ) (This is relevant because of the lore on the Isle of Man that the famous Manx cat is descended from cats that swam ashore at Spanish Head, along with a few Spanish sailors. Unfortunately, there isn’t any evidence to back this up.)

1598: England: Winchester holds a cat show. There isn’t a lot of documentation about this event, but some online sources claim that it was performance based, with live rodents released and cats awarded prizes for “best ratter” and “best mouser.” (Hartwell)

17th Century

1606: Australia: Europeans arrive. ( W ) (Presumably accompanied by ship cats–a type of carnivore that the local wildlife has never seen before, thanks to this continent’s multi-million-year isolation. It’s another setup for mass extinction, like the one that might have occurred there when the first humans arrived, accompanied by dogs, at least 4000 years ago.)

Europe: During this century, Dutch painters, known for their realism, show cats and people living together more or less peacefully.

In England, 1606 may be the year that Shakespeare’s Macbeth is first performed. One of the witches in that play calls to her familiar spirit – a cat.)

Witch familiar

A witch feeding her familiar spirits – apparently a cat and two lizards – in 1579. Source)

Meanwhile, in the Tower of London, Trixie the cat keeps her friend Henry Wriothesley, Third Earl of South Hampton, company.

1607 – North America: Jamestown becomes the first English settlement in the New World. ( W )

1618-1648: Europe: The Thirty-Years war devastates Europe. Some 8 million people are killed. ( W )

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War is always hell on people and cats. (Ion Chibzii) CC BY-SA 2.0.

1624-1642: In France, Cardinal Richelieu, a cat lover, centralizes his power. ( W )

1627: Aurochs – the wild ancestors of domestic cattle – go extinct. ( W ) (Apparently no one missed them. It’s a different situation today, when conservationists worry about domestic cats causing a genetic extinction of their ancestors, the wildcats.)

1630: North America: The Massachusetts Bay Colony is established. ( W ) (There is no evidence that the Pilgrims had cats aboard the “Mayflower” – documents do show dogs. It’s probably safe to assume that there were ship-cats and that some probably joined the settlements on land.)

1642: New Zealand: Europeans arrive. (Same note as for Australia, above. The long geographic isolation of this land and Australia has protected wildlife from placental carnivores like cats and dogs..)

1644-1647: England: While jury trials are suspended during the Civil War, witch-hunter Matthew Hopkins and his assistant John Stearne “discover” at least 300 witches, who are executed. Hopkins’ book The Discovery of Witches is quite popular and has an effect in the colonies. ( W )

Starting in 1650, witch-hunts start to decline in Europe. Though there are occasional flares of mob violence and lynchings, upper-class support for belief in witches is no longer present. ( W )

1658: Edward Topsell gives a detailed scientific description of the domestic cat in The History of Four-Footed Beasts and Serpents. (W&W)

1666: Samuel Pepys reports seeing a cat, on September 5, that survived the Great Fire of London by hiding in a chimney next to The Exchequer, which burned down.

That amazing cat had lost all its fur. Pepys describes it as “a poor cat” but gives no further information on its injuries or chances for recovery.

1692-1693: North America: The Salem witch trials. Tituba claims that a red cat and a black cat are among the spirits she has seen telling her to hurt the girls. ( W )

1697: Europe: “Puss in Boots” is published as one of the Stories of Tales of Past Times with Morals: Tales of Mother Goose.

18th Century

Around 1700, Isaac Newton invents the cat flap so his pet ktty can come and go without letting in the weather through an open hole in the door.

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“Sir Isaac Newton had smartz. Ai can haz smartz, too. Study, stuuudy, stuuuuudy. There. Smartz!” (Irish Typepad)

1727: France: François-Augustin de Paradis de Moncrif writes the first book about cats, Les Chats, later called Histoire des Chats. He was ridiculed at the time, but the book is still in print today. (LAV)

1730: Workers riot and kill their owner’s cats. (LAV) (This is called “The Great Cat Massacre,” but it is relatively small in scale compared to some of the horrible persecutions of cats in the West that I came across while researching this post.)

1735: England: According to a new Witchcraft Act, witchcraft is no longer a legal offense. ( W )

1745: Elizabeth of Russia orders cats to be installed for pest control in the Hermitage. ( W )

Cats are still on the job there.

Europe: Starting around 1750, popular support for kindness to animals increases.

Methinks I hear my little Doctor pouring forth all his rhetoric and logic upon an abstruse question…that “all the animal functions and operation of the brute-creation…were entirely owing to the operation of evil spirits, who are the moving principle in every one of them”…Sweet Miss Jenny, who has lavished away more kisses upon her favourite cat, than she would bestow upon the best man in the parish, felt some compunction within herself, that she had been wantonly, and almost maliciously, throwing away those caresses upon an evil spirit, whic many a good Christian would have been glad of.

— Rev. John Hildrop, 1742, with heavy sarcasm intended

1758: Linnaeus publishes the first scientific description and categorization of the domestic cat.

1798: Japan: The artist Utagawa Kuniyoshi is born. Cats will be one of his most popular themes, including paintings of cats arranged to spell out “catfish,” illustrating proverbs, and a homage to Hiroshige’s “50 Stations of the Tokaido.” ( W )

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“Catfish.” Note that some of the cats are tailless, like early Japanese cats, and others have tails, like cats brought into Japan by outsiders. Source)

An 18th century law forbids imprisonment or trade of cats. ( Wik-es)

Late 18th century: Europe: The Comte de Buffon publishes the fourth volume of his Histoire Naturelle, including an article on the domestic cat. The Comte de Buffon is not a cat person.

19th Century

Over 50 million people leave Europe for the Americas during this century. ( W ) (Presumably some of them have pet cats; also, the incidence of ship-cats going ashore may have increased along with this boost in the number of voyages.)

1801-1803: Australia: Trim the cat circumnavigates the continent while his owner maps the coastline. ( W )

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Of course they included Trim in the commemorative statue. (Source)

1805: England: The battle of Trafalgar ensures British dominance of the sea from this point on. ( W ) (Relevant because a study by Todd shows that the blotched tabby pattern (swirls and “bull’s-eyes”) in domestic cats, which probably originated in Britain, spread across the world with British expansion.)

1805: Europe: Astronomer Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande adds a domestic cat to the celestrial lions and lynx when he formally announces, in his book Bibliographie Astronomique, the constellation Felis. Lalande often invented new constellations, sometimes while under the influence, and Felis doesn’t last very long.

1810: Australia: Macquarie Island is discovered. (Relevance.)

1822: England: Parliament passes the first animal abuse bill. (P)

1825: Europe: The cat duet is first performed, a compilation of opera melodies, probably by Rossini. ( W )

Seriously, they even were doing this in the early 19th century!

1840s to 1850s: “French cats,” preferably white ones, are very popular long-haired pets in Britain. (Weir)

1859: Ireland: A cat show possibly was held in Dublin. (Hartwell)

1860s: Europe: Champfleury publishes Les Chats, which gets a much better reception than Moncrif’s cat book did back in 1727.

New England: Farmers show their beautiful long-haired cats during county fairs and exhibitions – the cats are known as either “Maine cats” or “coon cats” (from a legend that they come from a cat-raccoon ancestor). (Hartwell, Simpson)

No one actually knows where or when the Maine Coon’s European ancestors reached the New World.

1871: England: The Crystal Palace cat show.

And so it all began . . .



Featured image: Nekomata, 1737. Source.


Sources:

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Gaur, A. S.; Abhayan, G. S.; and Joglekar, P. P. 2011. Excavations at Kanjetar and Kaj on the Saurashtra Coast, Gujarat. http://drs.nio.org/drs/handle/2264/4131 Last accessed February 5, 2018.

GKC = Gilbert K. Chesterton. 1917. A Short History of England. Retrieved from http://www.gkc.org.uk/gkc/books/history.txt on February 11, 2018.

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Hildrop, J. 1742. Free Thoughts Upon the Brute-Creation, or, an Examination of Father Bougeant’s Philosophical Amusement, &c., in Two Letters to a Lady. London: R. Minors. https://archive.org/stream/freethoughtsupon0102hild#page/n8/mode/1up/search/+cat+ Last accessed February 25, 2018.

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Kurushima, J. D.; Lipinski, M. J.; Gandolfi, B.; Froenicke, J. C.; Grahn, J. C.; Grahn, R. A.; and Lyons, L. A. 2012. Variation of cats under domestication: genetic assignment of domestic cats to breeds and worldwide random-bred populations. Animal Genetics. 44:311-324.

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McIntosh, J. R. 2008. The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. Retrieved from Google Books preview https://preview.tinyurl.com/yaet25l6 on February 5, 2018.

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P = Perkins, D. 2003. Romanticism and animal rights (Vol. 58). Cambridge University Press.

P&F = Preece, R., and Fraser, D. 2000. The status of animals in Biblical and Christian thought: a study in colliding values. Society and Animals. 8(3): 245-263.

S = Serpell, J. A. 2014. Domestication and history of the cat, in The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behaviour, eds Turner, D. C., and Bateson, P., 83-100. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Simpson, F. 1903. The Book of the Cat. London, Paris, New York, Melbourne: Cassell and Company, Limited.

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TWF = Turner, D. C.; Waiblinger, E.; and Fehlbaum, B. 2013. Cultural differences in human-cat relations, in The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behaviour, eds Turner, D. C., and Bateson, P., 3rd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=m-NRAgAAQBAJ

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Weir, H. 1889. Our Cats and All About Them. Their Varieties, Habits, and Management; and for Show. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company.


Cat Chronology: 27 BC to 1571 AD


The story of cats and people expanded in richness and beauty during these years. The challenge in this post is to include everything relevant to cats without getting side-tracked by other events.

This stretch of human history is full of battles and other events that I will only bring in when there is a feline connection, even if that might be indirect, like the Silk Road.

A word about sources

I don’t normally use informal sources without double-checking. I did here because the human story overall is so complex; Wikipedia is also a wonderfully detailed encyclopedia of exactly the obscure kind of information I needed sometimes.

Just keep in mind that almost everything below without an academic source has not been double-checked.

Witches and cats

The biggie during this general period in the West, of course, was the witch hunts. But those didn’t just suddenly start up–such horrible episodes of mass hysteria and scapegoating never do. And that slow start is why they lasted so long.

This timeline post covers the whole interval during which the Church gradually switched over from condemning witch-burning to authorizing the Inquisition to deal with them. It’s very complex, and I have only touched on a few highlights (or low lights) as it got started.

The witch-trials that you probably have heard about, like those in Sussex and Salem, came later–in the 17th century (next time!).

Cats don’t realize just how good they have it these days.

One assumption I did make in this timeline is that most English-speakers like me already have a general idea of how Western civilization developed. So this is very lightly touched upon, and I added in some cat-related surprises from other cultures that I found.

The timeline ends in 1571 AD only because the last oar-rowed galleys were used in a battle that year. (Wik)

That really has nothing to do with cats, but it’s a significant point in the history of ships–and, as Neil Todd says, “[W]hat are water barriers to most animals become veritable highways to cats.”

This tradition of sailing with cats might be why moggies have such a varied appearance today.

Take the port of Alexandria, for instance. It was a bustling city, and since this was Ancient Egypt, there were a lot of cats around. One cat’s genes wouldn’t make much of a difference there, but smuggle that individual out and it might found a new lineage because cats were so rare elsewhere.

Geneticists can actually track down some of the domestic cat lines that developed this way after Ancient Egypt collapsed. (Kurushima; O)

This also held true after the Romans moved in. Merchants and legionnaires alike selected cats for companions based on some appealing novelty (Todd) and then carried them out of Egypt and eventually all around the world.

So what you adore most about your pet’s look might have begun long ago at some port or Roman road inn when something about a street cat caught the eye of a traveler.

The rest, as they say, is history.



Cat Chronology – 27 BC to 1571 AD

1st Century BC

100 BC: Southern Asia: Buddhist monks break with tradition to the extent of writing down the Pali canon on bark, palm leaves, and other fragile material. These texts will travel with missionaries both north into China and south across the Eastern Asian mainland and some islands. (B) (And the tradition of temple cats to protect the scrolls from rodent damage begins.)

30 BC: Anthony and Cleopatra kill themselves after Alexandria falls to Roman forces. Egypt is now a province and will go on to be the “breadbasket of Rome.”

27 BC: after some political maneuvering, Caesar’s heir Octavian becomes the Emperor Augustus and the Roman Empire begins. (A)

6 to 4 BC: Jesus is born, probably somewhere during this interval. (Wik)

1st Century AD/CE

1 AD: Silk Road trade: Silk seen for the first time in Rome. (C) (It soon becomes a popular exotic treasure among the aristocrats, just like domestic cats both East and West.)

9 AD: Roman Empire: Domestic cats are across the Alps, heading north and west with Roman legions. (O)

Legionnaires

As cats became more popular in the empire, legionnaires would put the feline image on their shields or even name their unit after cats. (LAV) Michael Coghlan. CC BY-SA 2.0.

26-37 AD: According to some reckonings, the crucifixion of Jesus happens somewhere in this interval. (Wik)

43 AD: The Roman conquest of Britain. (A)

Mid to late 60s: The Great Fire in Rome. In the social reaction, Christians are persecuted and killed in horrific ways, including burning. (Wik) Cats are not involved–yet.

58-76 AD: China: Emperor Ming-Ti has cats imported from India for the Temple of the White Horse, where the first Chinese sutta translations are stored. (DelRW)

79 AD: Italy: A Pompeiian woman dies, holding a cat, when Vesuvius erupts and buries her town. Their skeletons will be excavated centuries later. Did she die trying to save her pet? (Cats were popular in Pompeii; long-haired cats, perhaps Persians or Angoras, appear in the mosaics of the House of the Faun (see image at top of post).) (LAV)

Silk Road trade: By the third quarter of the 1st century, Roman merchants are in parts of Asia while Chinese traders under the Han Dynasty expand westward into Central Asia. (C)

2nd Century AD/CE

Silk Road trade: The Roman Empire is now a huge market for Eastern goods. (C) The road doesn’t just run east-west, either. In 166 AD, for example, Rome sends an envoy by sea to China, and Roman and Han merchants trade goods in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). (C, LAV)

At some point in the 1st or 2nd century, a little DNA from the steppe wildcat of Central Asia – Felis silvestris ornata – gets into one cat lineage at the Red Sea port of Berinike on the Maritime Silk Road. (O)

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“Felis silvestris ornata” is the only spotted member of the wildcat group. Raja Bandi. CC BY-SA 4.0.

Roman Empire: During the empire’s peak, cats are extremely popular. Roman women are called “kittens,” while children are named after cats. (LAV)

3rd Century AD/CE

China: The Han Dynasty falls. China breaks up and barbarians attack the former empire. (C) (I’m including a little Chinese history here because genetic studies show that groups of Asian cats were isolated at various times, probably because of such dynastic and social upheavals. (L) )

Roman Empire: According to Kors and Peters, quoted by Wikipedia, pagans accuse Christians of, among other things:

…accepting only the dregs of society, the most shameful people, into their assemblies and organizing dreadful, nocturnal, secret meetings (chap. 8). They practice indiscriminate sexual activity, worship the head of an ass, worship the genital organs of their priests, and initiate novices by making them kill infants and cannibalize them (chap. 9). Their rites are held in secret, and they have no temples (chap. 10). Finally they are a subversive sect that threatens the stability of the whole world…

No accusations about cats–yet.

4th Century AD/CE

330 AD: Roman Empire: With thousands of miles of imperial border to defend, and outsiders pushing in, Emperor Constantine decides to move the capital to Byzantium – renamed Constantinople – halfway between the Balkans and the Euphrates River. (A, C)

The Roman world is becoming more and more christianized. Soon Christiantity is declared the official religion. (A, C)

372 AD: Korea: Buddhism and presumably cats reach the Three Kingdoms from China. (B)

5th Century AD/CE

Domestic cats become more common in Europe and Southwest Asia. (O)

410 AD: Roman Empire: Rome sacked. The last Roman legions leave Britain. (A)

A note from the English writer G. K. Chesterton (a dog lover) is appropriate here:

The Roman legions left Britain in the fourth century [sic]. This did not mean that the Roman civilization left it; but it did mean that the civilization lay far more open both to admixture and attack…

There is one fundamental fact which must be understood of the whole of this period….The whole culture of our time has been full of the notion of `A Good Time Coming.’ Now the whole culture of the Dark Ages was full of the notion of `A Good Time Going.’ They looked backwards to old enlightenment and forwards to new prejudices…They hoped–but it may be said that they hoped for yesterday…

We may compare the man of that time, therefore, to one who has left free cities and even free fields behind him, and is forced to advance towards a forest. And the forest is the fittest metaphor, not only because it was really that wild European growth cloven here and there by the Roman roads, but also because there has always been associated with forests another idea which increased as the Roman order decayed. The idea of the forests was the idea of enchantment. There was a notion of things being double or different from themselves, of beasts behaving like men and not merely, as modern wits would say, of men behaving like beasts… (GKC)

After a few centuries, Europeans would start relighting their lamps of knowledge and culture, but this legacy of enchantment would contribute to the harm done to many unfortunately people and domestic cats.

476 AD: Roman Empire: The widely accepted date for the fall of the western Roman Empire. The eastern half – the Byzantine Empire, centered at Constantinople – is going strong. (A) (A lot of trade, and probably a lot of cats, passed through that city for centuries before it fell in wartime and Muslims brought their love of cats into it–a love that is still strong there even now, when the city is known as Istanbul.)

China: Northern and southern China are ruled by different dynasties in the 5th and 6th centuries. (B) (This is an oversimplification of a complex history during that period; again, genetic tests show that various Asian cat groups were kept apart, probably by human events, long enough to develop slightly differently from one another.)

6th Century AD/CE

538 AD: Korea: The King of Baekje sends Buddhist scrolls and other objects (presumably including cats to protect the scrolls) to Japan. For the Japanese, who practice Shintoism, this gift is controversial, but it is supported by an influential clan and eventually accepted. Forty years or so later, Buddhism will become the official religion for centuries. (B)

514 AD: Roman Empire: The Justinian Plague appears in Constantinople. Over the next two centuries it will travel throughout the Mediterranean Basin and kill at least 25 million people. (CDC)

7th Century AD/CE

610 AD: Muhammad has his revelations. (Wik)

The Arab Age of Discovery (7th to 13th century) begins. The Islamic maritime trading network links parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe. (Wik) (There is no word on the presence of cats, but given their popularity in the Islamic world since the days of Muhammad, and the recognized usefulness of ship cats, they probably were aboard these commercial ships, continuing their spread across the known world.)

China: During the T’ang Dynasty (7th to early 10th centuries) cats–many of them long-hairs brought by Persian traders–first appear as pets. They may be working animals, too. Tomb paintings from these times show small cats sitting behind hunters on horseback, just as the accompanying hunting dogs and cheetahs do! (DelRW, British Library)

692 AD: Europe: The last of three Catholic Church councils, each of which establishes merely ecclesiastical penances for devil-worship. (Wik)

Vikings: Cats at the Baltic port of Ralswiek. (O) (More on Vikings and their connection with cats in the 9th century)

8th Century AD/CE

Europe: Ship cats are now mandatory in Medieval Europe. (O)

Towards the end of this century, the first artificial canal connecting two rivers is begun (history’s verdict is still out on whether it worked). (Wik) (Canals are very cat relevant. A study tracking fur colors (Todd) showed that some are linked with the Seine and Rhône river valleys. These were connected by a complex canal system that goes back at least as far back as the 17th century. Solid colors and the blotched tabby pattern (swirls and “bull’s-eyes”) seem to have spread along this inland river short-cut between the Atlantic/North Sea and the Mediterranean. Indeed, blotched tabby seems to have started in Britain and then spread along the Seine-Rhône valleys. Cats with orange on them apparently didn’t get much of a foothold along the river route, perhaps because of the presence of so many other cats. Vikings might have had something to do with orange-colored cats being less common down here, too.)

The beautiful artwork of the Lindisfarne Gospels (710) and the Book of Kells (800) includes cats. (LAV)

785 AD: The Council of Padeborn outlaws condemning people as witches. Burning a witch is a capital crime. (Wik)

China: The T’ang Dynasty declines, and with it, the Silk Road. (C)

The Islamic Empire is at its peak, this century, stretching from Spain in the west to India’s Indus River in the east. (Wik) (And cats are very welcome here.)

9th Century AD/CE

868 A.D.: China: The Buddhist Diamond Sutta, the oldest known printed book, is published at Dunhuang. (C)

During this century, Lu Yu dedicates a poem to the cats protecting his library and tea collection. (DelRW)

Balkans: A domestic cat lineage develops here. (O)

Vikings: Vikings appear in the East Slavic confederation called Rus. Their origins are controversial, but they may have actually been an assortment of people that lived between roughly 750 and 1066 AD. (VAL) In Eastern Europe, these nomadic warrior-traders were known as Varangians, and they had an 1800-mile-long (3000 km) river route from the Baltic Sea near modern Stockholm to Constantinople. (IEU) (Relevant because the orange cat mutation developed in Asia Minor, as did the dominant white-fur mutation. These apparently appealed to Vikings, because cats with orange or orange/white fur are more common in lands the Vikings went into, including northern and western Scotland, the Faroe Islands, and perhaps as far as Iceland. (Todd) Too, we must get the domestic cat up into Scandinavia somehow – it’s possible that some Viking pets/cargo probably went feral and became forest cats. )

nfc

The Norwegian Forest Cat comes in other colors, too. Swallowtail Garden Seeds. Public domain.

Europe: In France, Louis the Pious moves against sorcerers and necromancers, and in 829 AD, the Council of Paris asks that secular courts try people accused of such crimes, since the Church’s concern is more about heresy. (Wik)

In southern Germany, an Irish monk who was driven out of his homeland by Viking raids writes a poem to his cat:

Pangur, white Pangur, How happy we are
Alone together, scholar and cat
Each has his own work to do daily;
For you it is hunting, for me study.
Your shining eye watches the wall;
My feeble eye is fixed on a book.
You rejoice, when your claws entrap a mouse;
I rejoice when my mind fathoms a problem.
Pleased with his own art, neither hinders the other;
Thus we live ever without tedium and envy.

10th Century AD/CE

Domestic cats now widespread in Europe and Asia. (S)

Around 900 AD Europe: Official Christian doctrine, per the Canon Episcopi, is that witchcraft isn’t real; to say that it exists is a false teaching. However, secular laws, like the “dooms” of King Athelstan, proscribe “witch-crafts.” (Wik) (At first, belief in witches was folklore, not Christianity.)

China: The Sung Dynasty reunites China. (C)

999 AD: Japan: Emperor Ichijō is given a cat to celebrate his thirteenth year of rule. (Wik-Es)

11th Century AD/CE

1000-1033 AD: Europe: Unexpectedly, from the popular Christian viewpoint, the world does not end. In these anxious times, Jews and people suspected of heresy suffer.

1099 AD: The Knights Hospitaller receive papal backing. (Wik) (There were other medieval orders, including the Knights Templar, but I chose to include the Hospitallers because they were based on Malta for a while and many histories of the Chartreux and other “blue” (actually gray-appearing) fancy-cats say that “Crusaders” brought these cats out of the Holy Land. Perhaps blue domestic cats also traveled northward out of the Middle East, including the ancestors of today’s Russian Blue forest-cat fancy breed.)

12th Century AD/CE

China:

Cat meme alert!

cat and butterfly

Barbara A. Lane at Pixabay. Public domain.

The … word 貓 māo cat is a homonym of 耄 mào “eighty-ninety years old”, so such paintings were a perfect gift for a birthday. Especially if they also represented a 蝶 dié butterfly, because then the names of the two figures, pronounced loud, also had the meaning 耄耋 màodié “very long old age”. (DelRW)

Around 1100 AD, long-haired cats are popular with aristocratic ladies. Cat paintings are also popular in the Sung Dynasty. (DelRW)

During this century, the Sung Dynasty breaks up into northern and southern domains. (C) (The Sung-era cat paintings shown at the above link to the Taiwan National Museum collection may be from the Southern dynasty.)

13th Century AD/CE

China: The Mongol ruler Kublai Khan conquers China and establishes the Yuan dynasty and the “Pax Mongolica.” The Silk Road flourishes and a third westward trade network, called the Northern or Steppe Route, is established. (C) (I can’t find any information on how this might be directly relevant to domestic-cat history, but it was a significant event and affected trade that probably included domestic cats for sale to aristocrats and perhaps monks.)

1211 AD: Europe:

…Gervase of Tilbury attested from personal experience to the existence of women ‘prowling about at night in the form of cats’ who, when wounded, ‘bear on their bodies in the numerical place the wounds inflicted upon the cat, and if a limb has been lopped off the animal, they have lost a corresponding member’ (Summers, 1934, p. 194).” (S)

1258 AD: Pope Alexander IV: Witchcraft is not to be investigated by the church. (Wik)

From the 13th to 17th centuries, the Hanseatic League monopolizes sea trade on the Baltic and to some extent the North Sea. (Wik) (Ship cats!)

1260 AD: Egypt: Sultan Baibars begins his rule. He will establish a cat garden in a Cairo mosque where the kitties can get daily food and water between the hours of noon and sunset. It’s still in operation today!

Africa: From the 13th to late 17th centuries, the Somali Ajuran and other Islamic sultanates and republics on the Horn of Africa dominate Indian Ocean maritime trade, with thriving commercial connections to Europe, the Middle East, North Africa, East Africa, India, and most of Asia, including possibly China. (Wik) (I wonder if the feline “Arabian Sea” race mentioned in Kurushima’s study [below in source list] are descendants of cats that jumped ship in these ports. We’ll probably never know.)

Screenshot_2018-02-19-10-16-39

The Horn of Africa, home of the Ajuran and other Somali rulers, is a good location for trade. Skilla1st. CC BY-SA 3.0.

14th Century AD/CE

Europe: The Black Death (plague) pandemic starts in China, spreads along trade routes to Constantinople and then to Europe, where it kills an estimated 60% of the population. (CDC) (Many think that the killing of cats worsened the plague by removing controls from the rat population that supposedly carried plague-bearing fleas, but, as Walter Andrews points out, this doesn’t take into account the fact that cats have fleas, too, and they spend much more time around people than rodents do. And a 2018 study suggests that humans, not rats, may have been the carriers!)

1324 AD: The date of what some consider the first witch trial, of Alice Kyteler in Ireland. (Wik)

1326 AD: Pope John XXII okays the inquisition and prosecution of witchcraft as a heresy (but see 1484 AD “Witch-Bull” below). (Wik)

Thailand: Theravadan Buddhism has been in the region since King Asoka sent missionaries through southern Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Malaya in the 3rd century BC, but it reaches the capital Ayudhaya (and presumably cats are introduced there, if they haven’t already arrived) from Ceylon/Sri Lanka in the 1300s. (B) At some point between now and when the city falls to the Burmese in the 1700s, artists make a Samut Khoi with poems and paintings of local cat types that are considered either “lucky” or “unlucky”. These are some of the earliest images of several modern natural cat fancy breeds.

Cat meme alert!

One of the “lucky cats” is the Suphalak, a natural breed similar to the western Burmese fancy-cat. And Johnny the Suphalak is apparently a popular Thai meme.

He even has a movie; here’s the trailer – I have no idea what they’re saying, but the cats come in toward the end:

15th Century AD/CE

1402 AD: The Spanish Empire begins with an invasion of the Canary Islands. ( W )

1415 AD: The Portuguese empire begins with the capture of Ceuta, a key port in northwest Africa. ( W )

1453 AD: Roman Empire: The eastern Roman Empire ends with the fall of Constantinople. (C) Some sparks from this “old enlightenment” (in Chesterton’s words) fall as far away as Europe, where they help kindle the Renaissance.

Silk Road trade: The rulers of China stop allowing foreigners in. Europe’s aristocrats must now get their silk from Lyon, in France. (C)

1428 AD: Europe: Witch trials in the Western Alps. The persecution spreads in parts of France and Switzherland. (Wik)

1478 AD: The Spanish Inquisition begins. (Wik)

1484 AD: Pope Innocent VIII issues the “Witch-Bull,” recognizing the existence of witches and giving the Inquisition full authority to deal with them. (Wik)

The European Age of Discovery starts, running from the 15th through the 17th centures. First the Portuguese and then the Spanish set off on long-distance voyages. (Wik) (All according to the ship cats’ plan for world domination!)

1492 AD: Columbus reaches the New World. (Wik)

1497 AD: Cabot explores part of eastern North America. (Wik)

1498 AD: Vasco de Gama reaches India. (Wik)

16th Century AD/CE

1501 AD: Persia: The Safavids revive Persia/Iran as an economic power in between East and West. The southern Silk Road becomes active again, but the Persians also enjoy direct maritime trade with Europe, especially England and the Netherlands, where business is brisk in silk and textiles as well as Persian carpets. (Wik) (No mention of cats as cargo, but they were probably included.)

1514 AD: New World: Diego de Almagro arrives in Panama. Just before he embarks on his conquest of Chile in 1535, he will give “one Montenegro, who presented him with the first Spanish cat that ever came to the Indias,” 600 pieces of eight. (Ovalle, emphasis added) (Some say this was a purchase, but in context it looks like a gift. Almagro apparently really liked the cat!)

It is very difficult to track down the domestic cat’s history in Latin America. (P) One genetic study suggests that cats arrived at different times, from different backgrounds. (R) Lozano notes that dogs and cats were not native to the New World and they went feral after arriving here.

1521 AD: Europe: Longhaired cats are documented in Europe.

Persian cat

Magnus Brath. CC BY 2.0.

1533 AD: The French writer Montaigne is born. In his 1595 book of essays, he will write of an experience that all cat lovers have shared:

When I play with my cat, who knows if I am not a pastime to her more than she is to me. We entertain each other with reciprocal monkey tricks. If I have my time to begin or to refuse, so has she hers.

1534 AD: The explorer Cartier claims part of eastern North America for France. (Wik)

Witch hunts become more common in Europe.(Wik)

1542 AD: England’s Parliament passes the first Witchcraft Act, making it a capital crime. (Wik)

1543 AD: The Far East: The Portuguese make contact with Japan. During the 16th century, China’s Ming Dynasty will also do business with Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch traders. (Wik)

1547 AD: Russia: Ivan IV (a/k/a the “Terrible” or the “Formidable”) is crowned Tsar. He will go on to transform his Muscovy powerbase into the transcontinental state we see as Russia today. (Wik) (Ivan the Terrible was certainly no friend of cats–understatement of all time!–but that has changed now. A 2017 study found that Russians own more cats than anyone else in the world!)

And cats are sometimes hailed as heroes there. This one saved a human newborn.

1562 AD: Europe: On August 3rd, a freak snowstorm hits the city of Wiesensteig, Germany. The end result: 67 women executed for witchcraft. From this point, European witch hunts start kicking into high gear. ( W )

1571 AD: The Age of Sail begins.


Featured image: Roman mosaic of a cat from Pompeii’s House of the Faun.


Sources:

A = Ancient History Encyclopedia. https://www.ancient.eu Multiple posts, multiple authors. Last accessed in the fall of 2017.

B = Buddha Dharma Education Association/BuddhaNet.Net. Buddhist World, multiple articles, multiple authors. https://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/ Last accessed February 3, 2018.

British Library. 2004. The Catalogue: Dunhuang: Official and Religious Life, in The Silk Road: Trade, Travel, War and Faith, eds Whitfield, S., and Sims-Williams, U., p. 236.

C = Silk Road Seattle. n.d. University of Washington, Walter Chapin Simpson Center for the Humanities. https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/exhibit/timeline.html Last accessed October 9, 2017.

CDC = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015. History of the Plague. https://www.cdc.gov/plague/history/index.html Last accessed February 17, 2018.

CHW = Charlesworth, M. P. 1926, Trade-routes and Commerce of the Roman Empire. Cambridge University Press. Ereader version of 2016 paperback, https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=wh7iDAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover Last accessed February 3, 2018.

DelRW = Poemas del Río Wang. 2010. Chinese cats. http://riowang.blogspot.com/2010/05/chinese-cats.html Last accessed November 25, 2017.

F = R. N. Frye Cyrus the Great: King of Persia. Encyclopedia Brittanica online. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Cyrus-the-Great Last accessed February 7, 2018.

G = Gershom, Y. 2014. The Jewish view of cats. rooster613.blogspot.com/2014/11/the-jewish-view-of-cats.html Last accessed February 7, 2014.

Gaur, A. S.; Abhayan, G. S.; and Joglekar, P. P. 2011. Excavations at Kanjetar and Kaj on the Saurashtra Coast, Gujarat. http://drs.nio.org/drs/handle/2264/4131 Last accessed February 5, 2018.

GKC = Gilbert K. Chesterton. 1917. A Short History of England. Retrieved from http://www.gkc.org.uk/gkc/books/history.txt on February 11, 2018.

H = J. Hays, 2013. Facts and Details. factsanddetails.com/china/cat2/sub90/ Last accessed February 2018.

IEU: Internet Encyclopedia of the Ukraine. Multiple pages. http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/default.asp Last accessed February 12, 2018.

J = Japan Buddhist Federation/Buddha Dharma Education Association. 2004. A Guide to Japanese Buddhism, Kōdō Matsunami, ed. https://www.buddhanet.net/nippon/nippon_preface.htm Last accessed February 3, 2018.

K = Kurushima, J. D.; Ikram. S.; Knudsen, J.; Bielberg, E.; and others. 2012. Cats of the pharaohs: Genetic comparison of Egyptian cat mummies to their feline contemporaries. Journal of Archaeological Science. 39(10):3217-3223.

Kurushima, J. D.; Lipinski, M. J.; Gandolfi, B.; Froenicke, J. C.; Grahn, J. C.; Grahn, R. A.; and Lyons, L. A. 2012. Variation of cats under domestication: genetic assignment of domestic cats to breeds and worldwide random-bred populations. Animal Genetics. 44:311-324.

L = Lipinski, M. J.; Froenicke, L.; Baysac, K. C.; Billings, N. C.; and others. 2008. The ascent of cat breeds: genetic evaluation of breeds and worldwide random bred populations. Genomics. 91(1):12-21.

LAV = L. A. Vocelle. The Great Cat website, various posts. http://www.thegreatcat.org Last accessed in the fall of 2017.

Lozano, P. 1878. Historia de la conquista del Paraquay, Rio de la Plata y Tucuman, Volume 1. Casa Editora “Imprenta Popular.” Argentina.

(MET) = The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History online. Multiple articles, multiple authors. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/

McIntosh, J. R. 2008. The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. Retrieved from Google Books preview https://preview.tinyurl.com/yaet25l6 on February 5, 2018.

O = Ottoni, C.; Van Neer, W.; De Cupere, B.; Daligault, J.; and others. 2017. The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world. Nature Ecology & Evolution. 1:0139.

Ovalle, A. 1646. The Kingdom of Chile, in A Collection of Voyages and Travels: Some Now First Printed from Original Manuscripts, Awnsham and John Churchill, 1704, pp 111-113. Retrived from http://bit.ly/2odzUwe on February 20, 2018.

P = Peñuela, M.and Cárdenas, H. 2015. Marcadores genéticos del pelaje en gatos domésticos de Capurganá-Colombia. Momentos de Ciencia, 9(1).

R = Ruiz-García, M. and Alvarez, D. 2003. Análisis de seis poblaciones latinoamericanas de gatos mediante genes del pelaje y marcadores microsatélites. Acta Zoológica Mexicana</i., (89), 261-286.

S = Serpell, J. A. 2014. Domestication and history of the cat, in The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behaviour, eds Turner, D. C., and Bateson, P., 83-100. New York: Cambridge University Press.

T = Colorado State University Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands (CMML). Timeline of Egyptian History & Culture. https://www.cemml.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/egypt02-01enl.html Last accessed October 9, 2017.

Todd, N. B. 1977. Cats and Commerce. Scientific American. 237:100-107.

TWF = Turner, D. C.; Waiblinger, E.; and Fehlbaum, B. 2013. Cultural differences in human-cat relations, in The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behaviour, eds Turner, D. C., and Bateson, P., 3rd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=m-NRAgAAQBAJ

V = Van Neer, W.; Linseele, V.; Friedman, R.; and De Cupere, B. 2014. More evidence for cat taming at the Predynastic elite cemetary of Hierakonpolis (Upper Egypt). Journal of Archaeological Science. 45:103-111.

Vigne, J. D.; Evin, A.; Cucchi, T.; Dai, L.; and others. 2016. Earliest “domestic” cats in China identified as leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). PloS One. 11(1):e0147295.

VAL = Viking Answer Lady. n.d. A Timeline of Scandinavian History Centering Upon the Viking Age. http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/timeline.shtml Last accessed February 12, 2018.

Wik = Wikipedia. Multiple articles. https://en.wikipedia.org Last accessed February 7, 2018.

Wik-Es = Wikipedia in Spanish translated into English at Wik-Es: https://translate.google.com/translate?sl=auto&tl=en&js=y&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=https:%2F%2Fes.m.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FHistoria_del_gato&edit-text=


Cat Chronology: Out of Egypt

 

The Early Years

8th Millennium BC

Cyprus: A cat is buried close to a human grave. (Vigne)

Libya: Circa 8000 BC, Neolithic people engrave two cats fighting and create other rock art in Wadi Mathendous. (W)

wadi fighting cats ruba flickr

Some think they’re monkeys, but other images I’ve seen, with closeups of the heads, clearly show an African wildcat. Rudolf Baumann CC BY 2.0.

Fourth Millenium BC

Egypt: Around 4500 BC, the Naqada I culture lives in villages along the Nile. (T)

Around 4221 BC, the possible base year of the Egyptian calendar. (T)

At Mostagedda, circa 4000 BC, a cat is buried with a human and a gazelle in a grave. (S)

3rd Millenium BC

Egypt: Around 3700 BC cats, presumably domesticated or at least tamed, are buried in an elite human cemetery. (V)

Around 3100 BC, predynastic kings unify Egypt. (T)

2nd Millenium BC

Egypt: Domestic cats appear more frequently in art, showing that the human-cat bond is growing stronger. (O)

From roughly 2600 to 2550 BC, Fourth-Dynasty rulers build the Great Pyramids and the Sphinx. (T)

Around 1500 BC

Egypt: What I think might be the first cat meme – a cat sitting under a woman’s chair – shows up in multiple tomb paintings. (T)

2018-02-09-13-20-28

I can haz – FISH! via Wikimedia.

10th Century BC

Egypt: Cult of Bastet becomes more important and cats are associated with the goddess. (S)

China: King Wu, of West Chou, is allegedly the first traveler on what will become the Silk Road. He gets as far as what is now Iran. (H) I have no idea who this was, but the Silk Road would become a major highway for cat traders..

8th Century BC

715 BC: Ethiopia conquers Egypt. (T)

According to a genetic study, Egyptian cats begin spreading through the Eastern Mediterranean lands in the 8th century. (O) Egypt’s geopolitical problems may have had something to do with it.

753 BC: Traditional date for the founding of Rome. (A)

7th Century BC

Egypt: The practice of offering mummified cats to Bast, which has been around for a while, now becomes very popular. (K)

Assyrians conquer Egypt in 671 BC. (T)

6th Century BC

Persia: Cyrus the Great comes to power in 550 BC. He will build the 1700-mile-long Persian Royal Road (later a major part of the Silk Road) that helps establish Sardis, on the Aegean, as a major east-west trading center. (F)

Persian Royal road

Fabienkhan via Wikimedia. At the southern end of the Persian Royal Road, a cat trader from the Eastern Mediterranean, where Egyptian cats were available now outside the Land of the Pharaohs, could sail down a river to the Persian Gulf and trade exotic pets for goods in India, Arabia, and even the east coast of Africa.

Cyrus also liberates the Israelites from Babylonian captivity–domestic cats are not mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures or the Christian Old Testament. (G, TWF)

Egypt: Battle of Pelusium in 525 BC, cats used as psychological warfare against Egyptians. The Persians conquer Egypt and will dominate Egypt until 332 BC, when Alexander the Great moves in. (A, T)

Rome: 509 BC: The city-state Rome becomes a republic. This Roman Republic will last until 44 BC, when Julius Caesar is murdered. (MET)

5th Century BC

Greece: The port of Piraeus near Athens is bustling. A 480 BC marble sculpture shows a leashed cat confronting a dog. (A, S)

Italy: Greeks introduce cats to southern Italy, where they become popular exotic pets, showing up in Etruscan art, pottery, and sculpture. (LAV, S)

India: Gotama Buddha passes away in 480 BC, according to some reckonings. (B) No one knows if there were cats in India at this point, but this is relevant because Buddha’s followers eventually will write down his teaching and use cats to protect the temple manuscripts.

temple cat

Greg Willis. CC BY-SA 2.0.

4th Century BC

Rome: Cats are now commono enough for Palladium to recommend using one for pest control, calling this animal cattus for the first time (the word felis back then referred not only to cats but to polecats, martens, and ferrets). (LAV)

India: Following the Buddha’s parinibbana, his followers have been passing down the teachings orally; some monks can recite the whole Pali Canon!

A schism happens in roughly 380 BC. It will ultimately result in two major strands of Buddhism–one form predominant in northern Asia, Korea, and Japan, and the other more common in southern and southeastern Asia. (B)

Egypt: In 332 BC, Alexander takes over Egypt without resistance, founding the Ptolemaic dynasty of pharaohs that ends in 30 BC with Cleopatra.

Along the way, Egypt’s Ptolemies will build a temple to Bastet in the port city founded by Alexander and named after him: Alexandria, as well as reopen an old canal and overland road to the Red Sea and the port of Berenike. This route will become part of the Maritime Silk Road during the Roman Empire. (C, CHW, T)

3rd Century BC

At some point before 200 BC, at least one domestic cat – a mackerel tabby – reaches China. (S)

India: King Asoka (269-237 BC) converts to Buddhism and sends out missionaries to northwest India (what are now Pakistan and Afghanistan). They probably get there via the Uttara Path, which predates the Buddha and runs for some 1600 miles from the mouth of the Ganges to the northwest boundary of the King’s empire. Later it will be called the Grand Trunk Road–a major artery of the Silk Road. Monks also go to Sri Lanka and across Southeast Asia. Monks and nuns depend completely on the laity for support, in return offering education and a chance for laypeople to earn merit in the next world. Caravan traders and businessmen are the best patrons of any sizable monastic group. (B, H, W)

By roughly 280 BC, the Roman Republic dominates central Italy and is on its way to become a major regional power. (A)

roman republic and empire

varana via Wikimedia. Caption: Subtract yellow and green (which mark imperial expansions)–the rest is the Roman Republic.

2nd Century BC

Many merchants along Central Asia’s caravan routes convert to Buddhism, which becomes popular in cities like Kotan, where the first contacts with the Chinese happen. (B)

China: In 200 BC, the new Han dynasty makes peace with the nomadic Xiongu of central Asia, against whom Chinese emperors had built the Great Wall. That boosts east-west caravan trade. Then General Zhang Qian heads west to establish military alliances. By formalizing trade, especially silk, with Persia, he gets credit for opening up the Silk Road all the way from the Mediterranean to China. (H)

According to MET, with the Silk Road now in place:

…merchants, diplomats, and travelers could (in theory) cross the ancient world from Britain and Spain in the west to China and Japan in the east. The trade routes served principally to transfer raw materials, foodstuffs, and luxury goods from areas with surpluses to others where they were in short supply. Some areas had a monopoly on certain materials or goods. China, for example, supplied West Asia and the Mediterranean world with silk, while spices were obtained principally from South Asia. These goods were transported over vast distances— either by pack animals overland or by seagoing ships—along the Silk and Spice Routes, which were the main arteries of contact between the various ancient empires of the Old World…

Ironically, the camels that we associate with Silk Road caravans actually were not very common in the region until trade picked up and they brought in to handle the extra cargo. (MET)

silk road caravan 1992

fdecomite. CC BY 2.0. Caption: Yes, mountains. The desert camel trek was along the incense route across the Sahara (not so much cat-related but still interesting, especially if you’re an Indiana Jones fan!)

1st Century BC

Rome:

55-54 BC: Julius Caesar enters Britain. (A)

44 BC: Julius Caesar is murdered in Rome. (A)

30 BC: Anthony and Cleopatra kill themselves after Alexandria falls to Roman forces. Egypt is now a province and will go on to be the “breadbasket of Rome.” In 27 BC, after some political maneuvering, Caesar’s heir Octavian becomes the Emperor Augustus and the Roman Empire begins. (A)

China:

45 BC: Cat remains this old have been found in the tomb of Guangyangqing King, Beijing. (Vigne)



Cited and Uncited ources:

A = Ancient History Encyclopedia. https://www.ancient.eu Multiple posts, multiple authors. Last accessed in the fall of 2017.

B = Buddha Dharma Education Association/BuddhaNet.Net. Buddhist World, multiple articles, multiple authors. https://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/ Last accessed February 3, 2018.

British Library. 2004. The Catalogue: Dunhuang: Official and Religious Life, in The Silk Road: Trade, Travel, War and Faith, eds Whitfield, S., and Sims-Williams, U., p. 236.

C = Silk Road Seattle. n.d. University of Washington, Walter Chapin Simpson Center for the Humanities. https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/exhibit/timeline.html Last accessed October 9, 2017.

CHW = Charlesworth, M. P. 1926, Trade-routes and Commerce of the Roman Empire. Cambridge University Press. Ereader version of 2016 paperback, https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=wh7iDAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover Last accessed February 3, 2018.

F = R. N. Frye Cyrus the Great: King of Persia. Encyclopedia Brittanica online. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Cyrus-the-Great Last accessed February 7, 2018.

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